openssl - OpenSSL command line tool
[ command_opts ] [ command_args ]
openssl [ list-standard-commands | list-message-digest-commands | list-cipher-commands | list-cipher-algorithms | list-message-digest-algorithms | list-public-key-algorithms]
openssl no-XXX [ arbitrary options ]
OpenSSL is a cryptography toolkit implementing the Secure Sockets Layer
(SSL v2/v3) and Transport Layer Security (TLS v1) network protocols and
related cryptography standards required by them.
The openssl program is a command line tool for using the various cryptography functions
of OpenSSL's crypto library from the shell. It can be used for
o Creation and management of private keys, public keys and parameters
o Public key cryptographic operations
o Creation of X.509 certificates, CSRs and CRLs
o Calculation of Message Digests
o Encryption and Decryption with Ciphers
o SSL/TLS Client and Server Tests
o Handling of S/MIME signed or encrypted mail
o Time Stamp requests, generation and verification
The openssl program provides a rich variety of commands (command in the SYNOPSIS above), each of which often has a wealth of options and
arguments (command_opts and command_args in the SYNOPSIS).
The pseudo-commands list-standard-commands, list-message-digest-commands, and list-cipher-commands output a list (one entry per line) of the names of all standard commands,
message digest commands, or cipher commands, respectively, that are
available in the present openssl utility.
The pseudo-commands list-cipher-algorithms and
list-message-digest-algorithms list all cipher and message digest names, one entry per line. Aliases are
from => to
The pseudo-command list-public-key-algorithms lists all supported public key algorithms.
The pseudo-command no-XXX tests whether a command of the specified name is available. If no command
named XXX exists, it returns 0 (success) and prints no-XXX; otherwise it returns 1 and prints XXX. In both cases, the output goes to stdout and nothing is printed to stderr. Additional command line arguments are always ignored. Since for each
cipher there is a command of the same name, this provides an easy way for
shell scripts to test for the availability of ciphers in the openssl program. (no-XXX is not able to detect pseudo-commands such as quit,
list-...-commands, or no-XXX itself.)
Parse an ASN.1 sequence.
Certificate Authority (CA) Management.
Cipher Suite Description Determination.
Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Management.
CRL to PKCS#7 Conversion.
Message Digest Calculation.
Diffie-Hellman Parameter Management. Obsoleted by dhparam.
DSA Data Management.
DSA Parameter Generation and Management. Superseded by
genpkey and pkeyparam
Encoding with Ciphers.
Error Number to Error String Conversion.
Generation and Management of Diffie-Hellman Parameters. Superseded by
genpkey and pkeyparam
Generation of Diffie-Hellman Parameters. Obsoleted by dhparam.
Generation of DSA Private Key from Parameters. Superseded by
genpkey and pkey
Generation of Private Key or Parameters.
Generation of RSA Private Key. Superceded by genpkey.
Online Certificate Status Protocol utility.
Generation of hashed passwords.
PKCS#12 Data Management.
PKCS#7 Data Management.
Public and private key management.
Public key algorithm cryptographic operation utility.
Public key algorithm parameter management.
Generate pseudo-random bytes.
PKCS#10 X.509 Certificate Signing Request (CSR) Management.
RSA key management.
RSA utility for signing, verification, encryption, and decryption.
Superseded by pkeyutl
This implements a generic SSL/TLS client which can establish a transparent
connection to a remote server speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended for testing
purposes only and provides only rudimentary interface functionality but
internally uses mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library.
This implements a generic SSL/TLS server which accepts connections from
remote clients speaking SSL/TLS. It's intended for testing purposes only
and provides only rudimentary interface functionality but internally uses
mostly all functionality of the OpenSSL ssl library. It provides both an own command line oriented protocol for testing
SSL functions and a simple HTTP response facility to emulate an
SSL Connection Timer.
SSL Session Data Management.
S/MIME mail processing.
Algorithm Speed Measurement.
Time Stamping Authority tool (client/server)
X.509 Certificate Verification.
OpenSSL Version Information.
X.509 Certificate Data Management.
- bf bf-cbc bf-cfb bf-ecb bf-ofb
- cast cast-cbc
- cast5-cbc cast5-cfb cast5-ecb cast5-ofb
- des des-cbc des-cfb des-ecb des-ede des-ede-cbc des-ede-cfb des-ede-ofb des-ofb
- des3 desx des-ede3 des-ede3-cbc des-ede3-cfb des-ede3-ofb
- idea idea-cbc idea-cfb idea-ecb idea-ofb
- rc2 rc2-cbc rc2-cfb rc2-ecb rc2-ofb
- rc5 rc5-cbc rc5-cfb rc5-ecb rc5-ofb
Several commands accept password arguments, typically using -passin
and -passout for input and output passwords respectively. These allow the password to be
obtained from a variety of sources. Both of these options take a single
argument whose format is described below. If no password argument is given
and a password is required then the user is prompted to enter one: this
will typically be read from the current terminal with echoing turned off.
the actual password is password. Since the password is visible to utilities (like 'ps' under Unix) this
form should only be used where security is not important.
obtain the password from the environment variable var. Since the environment of other processes is visible on certain platforms
(e.g. ps under certain Unix OSes) this option should be used with caution.
the first line of pathname is the password. If the same pathname
argument is supplied to -passin and -passout arguments then the first line will be used for the input password and the
next line for the output password. pathname need not refer to a regular file: it could for example refer to a device or
read the password from the file descriptor number. This can be used to send the data via a pipe for example.
read the password from standard input.
asn1parse(1), ca(1), config(5),
crl(1), crl2pkcs7(1), dgst(1),
dhparam(1), dsa(1), dsaparam(1),
enc(1), gendsa(1), genpkey(1),
genrsa(1), nseq(1), openssl(1),
pkcs12(1), pkcs7(1), pkcs8(1),
rand(1), req(1), rsa(1),
verify(1), version(1), x509(1),
crypto(3), ssl(3), x509v3_config(5)
openssl(1) document appeared in OpenSSL 0.9.2. The list-XXX-commands pseudo-commands were added in OpenSSL 0.9.3; The list-XXX-algorithms pseudo-commands were added in OpenSSL 0.9.9; the no-XXX pseudo-commands were added in OpenSSL 0.9.5a. For notes on the availability
of other commands, see their individual manual pages.
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